It has numerous pharmacological and physiological effects, including cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, and smooth muscle effects, as well as effects on mood, memory, alertness, and physical and cognitive performance. This chapter provides a brief summary of the metabolism and physiological effects of caffeine Caffeine 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine is a plant alkaloid with a chemical structure of C8H10N4O2 see Figure 2—1 and a molecular weight of In pure form, it is a bitter white powder. Structurally, caffeine and the other methylxanthines resembles the purines.

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The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the U. The U. The views presented in this publication are those of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America. Knowing Is not enough; we must apply. Miffing is not enough; we must To. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in , the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters.

Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in , under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers.

It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers.

The Institute of Medicine was established in by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education.

Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities.

Me Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Alberts and Dr. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

ROSS L. Smith Consulting, Inc. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evi- dence, and responsiveness to the study charge.

The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative proc- ess. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: E. Clydesdale, University of Massachusetts Joseph T.

Hursh, Science Applications International Corporation Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Catherine E. Woteki, University of Maryland at College Park, appointed by the Institute of Medicine, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered.

Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Other reports in the series have included such issues as food components to enhance performance; nutri- tional needs in hot, cold, and high-altitude environments; body composition and physical performance; nutrition and physical performance; cognitive testing methodology; fluid replacement and heat stress; and antioxidants and oxidative stress.

The purpose of this committee was to advise the U. Although the membership of the committee has changed periodically, the disciplines represented consistently have included human nutrition, nutritional biochemistry, performance physiology, food science, and psychology. For issues that require broader expertise than exists within the committee, the CMNR has convened workshops or utilized consultants.

The workshop agenda and abstracts are presented in Appendix A. Speakers invited to the workshop were also requested to submit a brief list of selected background papers. Their recommended readings, relevant citations collected by CMNR staff prior to the workshop, and citations from each chapter are included in the references. In particular, I wish to ac- knowledge the superior efforts of Mary I. Poos, the staff officer for the CMNR. She worked diligently with committee members in securing the expert panel of speakers and organizing the program for the workshop into coherent sessions.

PREFACE X1 She also conducted extensive reviews and summaries of the scientific literature and performed major edits of the report to ensure clarity and accuracy. I also wish to commend the workshop speakers for their excellent contribu- tions in preparing abstracts and participating through their presentations and discussions at the workshop.

Their willingness to take time from very busy schedules to prepare and deliver outstanding presentations made it possible for the committee to conduct the review and prepare this report. It would be neglectful not to mention the many experts who attended this open meeting at their own initiative and expense.

Their questions and comments contributed in no small measure to broadening the exchange of scientific information. I express my deepest appreciation to the members of the CMNR who par- ticipated extensively during the workshop and in discussions and preparation of the summary and recommendations in this report. I thank all of you for your continuing contributions to this program.



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Caffeine use has been associated with increased alertness and enhanced physical performance, and as a countermeasure to the effects of sleep deprivation. Extensive research has been done on each of these effects of caffeine. A brief summary of research findings on the efficacy of caffeine is presented here. Its use is associated with a reproducible increase in endurance time in activities of moderate intensity and long duration. Caffeine consumed both at rest and during exercise increases a variety of physiological processes heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure , probably through the secretion of epinephrine. Typically, the magnitude of the exercise response far exceeds and masks the resting effects of caffeine intake. However, if the intensity of the exercise is low and the caffeine dose is high, the effect of the caffeine may be obvious even during exercise.


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