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Note: Just to clarify what is client server and file server I will make a quick description of widely accepted architectures. In Main Frame architecture, all the processing happens on central host server. User interacts through a dumb terminal that only sends keystrokes and information to the host. All the main processing happens on the central host server.
So the advantage in such type of architecture is that you need least configuration clients. But the disadvantage is that you need a robust central host server like Main Frames. In File sharing architecture, which is followed by Access database, all the data is sent to the client terminal and then processed.
For instance, if you want to see customers who stay in India, in File Sharing architecture all customer records will be sent to the client PC regardless whether the customer belongs to India or not.
Therefore, in this architecture, the client PC should have heavy configuration and it increases network traffic as a lot of data is sent to the client PC. However, the advantage of this architecture is that your server can be of a low configuration. Figure 1.
In client server architecture, you have two entities, client and the database server. File server is now replaced by database server.
Database server takes up the load of processing any database related activity and the client does any validation aspect of database. As the work is distributed between the entities it increases scalability and reliability. Second, the network traffic also comes down as compared to file server. In Access, the client directly interacts with the Access file, in case there is some problem in the middle of a transaction, there are chances that an Access file can get corrupt.
But in SQL SERVER, the engine sits in between the client and the database, so in case of any problems in the middle of a transaction, it can revert back to its original state. It is primarily provided as a low cost option for developers who need a database server, which can easily be shipped and installed. It can serve as a good alternative for Microsoft Access database as it overcomes quite a few problems which Access has. Performance degrades in MSDE when maximum number of concurrent operations goes above 8 or is equal to 8.
It does not mean that you cannot have more than eight concurrent operations but the performance degrades. EXE VS. For any details refer here. SQL-DMO objects can be used to build your custom UI There are many third party tools, which provide administrative capability GUI, which is out of scope of the book as it is only meant for interview questions. MSDE does not support Full text search.
Summarizing: There are two major differences: The first is the size limitation 2 GB of the database and second is the concurrent connections eight concurrent connections which are limited by using the workload governor. During an interview, this answer will suffice if the interviewer is really testing your knowledge. Note: Normally comparison is when the product is migrating from one version to other version.
This much can convince the interviewer that you are clear about the differences. MSDE was always meant for trial purpose and non-critical projects. Workload governor sits between the client and the database engine and counts the number of connections per database instance. If Workload governor finds that the number of connections exceeds eight connections, it starts stalling the connections and slowing down the database engine.
Note: It does not limit the number of connections but makes the connection request go slow. But it just makes the database engine go slow above eight connections. Following are some major differences between the two versions: PG The most significant change is the. Stored procedures, user-defined functions, triggers, aggregates, and user-defined types can now be written using your own favorite.
NET language VB. NET, C , J etc. It was a separate installation for SQL Server Problem with image and text data types is that they assign the same amount of storage irrespective of what the actual data size is.
This problem is solved using varbinary max which acts depending on amount of data. In addition, stored procedure invocation is enabled using the SOAP protocol. PG Asynchronous mechanism is introduced using server events.
In Server event model the server posts an event to the SQL Broker service, later the client can come and retrieve the status by querying the broker. In data partitioning, you break a single database object such as a table or an index into multiple pieces. Now in one SQL connection, you can query and have multiple results set. You cannot access the sys object directly as in the older version we were accessing the master database. Note: Hyper threading is a technology developed by INTEL which creates two logical processors on a single physical hardware processor.
AMO Analysis Management Objects to manage Analysis Services servers, data sources, cubes, dimensions, measures, and data mining models. NET Framework. Note: There is a question on this later see for execution context questions.
Now the user owns schema. Note: Ok below are some GUI changes. Query analyzer is now replaced by query editor. Business Intelligence development studio will be used to create Business intelligence solutions. You do not have to really say all the above points during an interview. A sweet summary and you will rock. Q What are E-R diagrams?
E-R diagram also termed as Entity-Relationship diagram shows the relationship between various tables in the database. Example: Tables Customer and Customer Addresses have a one to many relationship i. ER diagrams are drawn during the initial stages of a project to forecast how the database structure will shape up. There are three major relationship models: One-to-one Figure 1. Example: Every one customer can have multiple sales. So there exist one-to-many relationships between customer and sales table.
One Asset can have multiple Maintenance. So Asset entity has one-to-many relationship between them as the ER model shows below. For instance: In a company, one employee can have many skills like Java , C etc. Given below is a sample of many-to-many relationship. One employee can have knowledge of multiple Technology.
So in order to implement this, we have one more table Employee Technology which is linked to the primary key of Employee and Technology table. What are the Different Types of Normalization?
Note: A regular. NET programmer working on projects often stumbles on this question, which is but obvious. The bad part is sometimes the interviewer can take this as a very basic question to be answered and it can be a turning point for the interview.
It is set of rules that have been established to aid in the design of tables that are meant to be connected through relationships. This set of rules is known as Normalization. Actually you can normalize database to fifth normal form. But believe this book, answering three normal forms will put you in a decent shape during an interview. The three normal forms as follows: First Normal Form For a table to be in first normal form, data must be broken up into the smallest units possible.
In addition to breaking data up into the smallest meaningful values, tables in first normal form should not contain repetitions groups of fields. In order for these tables to be in First normal form, you have to modify the table structure as follows. Also note that the Customer Name is now broken down to first name and last name First normal form data should be broken down to the smallest unit.
In other words, each non-key field should be a fact about all the fields in the primary key. In the above table of customer, city is not linked to any primary field. That takes our database to a second normal form. Third Normal Form A non-key field should not depend on another Non-key field. The field Total is dependent on Unit price and qty. Q What is Denormalization? Denormalization is the process of putting one fact in numerous places it is vice-versa of normalization.
Only one valid reason exists for denormalizing a relational design - to enhance performance. The sacrifice to performance is that you increase redundancy in a database. Note: Whenever the interviewer is trying to go above the third normal form, there can be two reasons, ego or to fail you.
Three normal forms are really enough, practically anything more than that is an overdose. So let us try to see what multi-valued facts are. In order for the above example to satisfy the fourth normal form, both the many-to-many relationships should go in different tables. Fifth normal form deals with reconstructing information from smaller pieces of information. These smaller pieces of information can be maintained with less redundancy. Example: Dealers sell Product which can be manufactured by various Companies.
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