Herpetology Notes Based on the quantity and the type of germinative cells, males had their testicles classified in four stage immature, initial maturation, advanced maturation and mature and females had their ovaries only in mature stage. Freitas, Abegg, Dias, and Moraes,Herpetol. Hyla emrichi Mertens,Bl. Means that the results of the search must include both words held together by an AND.
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The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus Anura: Hylidae is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I COI and the 16S rhibosomal gene 16S for samples of D.
We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D.
We defined that clade as the D. The remaining lineages together with the D. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. Introduction The application of molecular methods has expedited tremendously the discovery and characterization of global biological diversity .
This is particularly true for amphibians, where the rate of species descriptions has accelerated enormously in the past 20 years  — . Integrative approaches that combine multiple lines of evidence have allowed taxonomists to define and name many of these evolutionary independent lineages as proper species  — .
The improved delimitation of species diversity, transforming one widely distributed species into several species, each with a smaller range, in many cases has notable impact on conservation. Cryptic genetic diversity is now so commonly reported in molecular studies of amphibian species that the existence of nominally widespread tropical species has been called into question  , .
However, supposedly widespread species occurring across multiple biomes and countries are rarely comprehensively sampled across their complete geographic range in screenings of genetic diversity  ,  or phylogeographic studies  — .
Sampling of species from across vast continental areas and across political borders is often handicapped by financial, logistic and political factors. In the Neotropics, nominal taxa such as Rhinella margaritifera Bufonidae , Leptodactylus fuscus Leptodactylidae , and Scinax ruber Hylidae are prominent examples of anuran species once considered to occur across nearly the entire tropical lowlands of South America.
Evidence has accumulated that many such putatively widespread species could in fact be complexes of cryptic taxa e. However, given limited genetic sampling and the difficulty in reviewing material from all countries hosting populations, their relationships and systematics remain in many cases as unclear as they were decades ago  , . A further example of a putatively widespread Neotropical amphibian species is Dendropsophus minutus Peters, , a small hylid frog of 21—28 mm snout-vent length, distributed in Cis-Andean South America, including the Andean slopes, the Amazon Basin, the Guiana Shield, down to the Atlantic Forests of southeastern Brazil, with an elevational record from near sea level up to 2, m .
However, the sheer size of its supposed geographical range along with nomenclatural and taxonomic complexity six junior synonyms,  and unresolved relationships in the D. In this case study, we use D. In addition to conservation concerns, this question has important implications for South American biogeography in general and amphibian systematics and evolution in particular.
Evidence is accumulating that body size in amphibians has a positive correlation with range size  ,  , but contrary to this trend many Holarctic amphibians occur with little genetic substructure across the vast ranges they colonized after the last glaciation, despite sometimes moderate to small body sizes examples in . Whether such patterns also exist across vast ranges in tropical regions, with their distinct historical climatic dynamics  , is an open question.
Deciphering possible cryptic diversity within the nominal D. The present study is a multinational collaborative effort to sample nominal D. Based on mitochondrial DNA sequences as a proxy for overall genetic diversity, we identify genealogical lineages currently subsumed within D. Although there are some data on morphology and bioacoustics, we only partially discuss these here and refrain from making taxonomic decisions, but instead provide a roadmap for future integrative studies.
Our focus, therefore, is on the biogeographical implications of the phylogeographic origins and evolutionary history of the D. We reveal here that this species complex exists as a mixture of both geographically widespread lineages and probable microendemic lineages. Methods Data collection and laboratory methods No experiments were conducted using living animals.
Voucher specimens were euthanized using methods that do not require approval by an ethics committee. We analyzed samples of specimens identified as Dendropsophus aperomeus, D. The D. These authors tentatively allocated Dendropsophus aperomeus to the D. However, later molecular phylogenetic analyses suggested different positions for D.
Dendropsophus stingi has not been associated with any species group so far  , but shares morphological characters with D. Because of their unsolved relationships, D.
DENDROPSOPHUS MINUTUS PDF
Subsequently, the gonads were removed and their mass was determined to obtain an individual gonadosomatic index GSI and processed according to the histological routine. Brusquetti and Lavilla,Cuad. Hyla suturata Miranda-Ribeiro,Arq. Hyla goughi Boulenger,Proc. Cardoso and Haddad,Cienc.
The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus Anura: Hylidae is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I COI and the 16S rhibosomal gene 16S for samples of D. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D.